Operation Procedures and Maintenance of Winch

Preparation before Operation

  1. During installation, the base must be stable and firm, with reliable ground anchors and work shed. The position of the operator shall be able to see the commander and the objects dragged or lifted.
  2. Before operation, the winch can be used only after it is checked to see whether it is fixed with the ground, protective facilities, electrical line grounding wire, braking device and steel rope.
  3. For the parts with belt and open gear drive, protective cover shall be provided, and the open pull plate pulley shall not be used for the guide pulley.
  4. For the winch with positive and negative power, the rotation direction of the drum shall be the same as that indicated on the control switch.
  5. The distance from the center line of the drum to the first guide pulley shall be more than 15 times the width of the drum with groove and 20 times the width of the drum without groove. When the steel wire rope is in the middle of the drum, the position of the pulley shall be perpendicular to the axis of the drum.
  6. There shall be no obstacles within the travel range of the automatic control lever of the winch.

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Precautions in Operation

  1. The steel wire ropes on the drum shall be arranged in order. In case of overlapping and skew winding, it shall be stopped and rearranged. It is forbidden to use hands and feet to pull and step on the wire rope during rotation. The steel wire rope shall not be put out completely, and at least three turns shall be reserved.
  2. The steel wire rope shall not be knotted or twisted, and it shall be replaced when the broken wire is more than 10% within one pitch.
  3. During the operation, no one is allowed to cross the steel wire rope. After the object is lifted, the operator shall not leave the winch. During rest, the object or cage shall be lowered to the ground.
  4. During the operation, the driver and signalman shall keep good visibility with the hoisted object, and the driver and signalman shall closely cooperate and obey the unified signal command.
  5. In case of power failure during operation, cut off the power supply and lower the lifting objects to the ground.

Precautions after Operation

  1. After the operation, disconnect the power supply and lock the switch box.
  2. The lifting cage or objects shall be lowered to the ground and the site obstacles shall be cleared.

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    Basic Information of Mooring Winch

    Mooring winch is a kind of marine winch. Mooring winch can also operate effectively when the ship is berthing, and has many functions such as drift, support and positioning in the process of loading and unloading. Meanwhile, it can adjust and compensate the vibration deviation with constant tension. The mooring winch installed on shore for loading or unloading is an application example of constant tension adjustment feature.

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    Types of Winch

    According to the power, the winch is divided into three categories: manual, electric and hydraulic.

    According to the function, the winch can be divided into marine winch, engineering winch, mine winch, cable winch and so on.

    Marine winch can be divided into mooring winch, positioning winch, towing winch, anchor winch, etc.

    According to the form of drum, it can be divided into single drum and double drum.

    According to the distribution form of drum, it can be divided into parallel double drum and front and rear double drum.

    Manual winch

    A stop (ratchet and pawl) is installed on the transmission mechanism of the handle rotation of the manual winch, which can keep the weight in the required position. The manual winch for assembling or lifting heavy objects shall also be equipped with safety handle and brake. Manual winch is generally used in places with small lifting capacity, poor facilities or no power supply.

    Electric winch

    Electric winch is widely used in places with heavy work and large traction force. The motor of the single drum electric winch drives the drum through the reducer, and a brake is installed between the motor and the input shaft of the reducer. In order to meet the needs of lifting, traction and rotation, there are also winches with double drum and multi drum devices. Winch with general rated load less than 10t can be designed as electric winch.

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    Hydraulic winch

    The hydraulic winch is mainly a winch with a larger rated load. Generally, the winch with a capacity of more than 10t to 5000t is designed as a hydraulic winch.

    Its structure is mainly composed of hydraulic motor (low-speed or high-speed motor), hydraulic normally closed multi plate brake, planetary gearbox, clutch (optional), drum, supporting shaft, frame, rope presser (optional), etc. The hydraulic motor has high mechanical efficiency, large starting torque, and can be equipped with different distributors according to the working conditions. The valve group can also be designed and directly integrated into the motor oil distributor according to the user’s needs, such as the valve group with balance valve, overload valve, high-pressure shuttle valve, speed control reversing valve or other performance. The brake, planetary gearbox, etc. are directly installed in the drum, drum, support shaft, machine The frame is designed according to the mechanical requirements, the overall structure is simple and reasonable and has enough strength and rigidity. Therefore, this series of winches are compact in structure, small in volume, light in weight and beautiful in appearance. In performance, they are characterized by good safety, high efficiency, large starting torque, good low-speed stability, low noise and reliable operation. It is worth mentioning that the high volume efficiency of the hydraulic motor and the high-quality balance valve of SUN company in the United States solve the problem of secondary sliding and air hook shaking existing in the general winch, which makes the lifting, lowering and braking process of the series of hydraulic winch stable, and the winch with clutch can also realize free lowering. The integrated valve group installed on the valve plate effectively simplifies the user’s hydraulic system. Because of the above advantages, the winch is widely used in ship, railway, engineering machinery, petroleum, geological exploration, metallurgy and other industries, and its excellent performance has been recognized by users.

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      Comparison between Construction Winch and Marine Winch

      Construction winch refers to all kinds of winch (which can be electric winch, hydraulic winch or diesel winch) used in various projects on land and coastal; it is used to lift or drag heavy objects. It mainly includes JM slow winch, JK fast winch, JKL fast piling winch, JKD planetary winch, JMM friction winch and some customized mine winch.

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      Marine winch refers to the winch used on the ship, wharf or shore, mainly for anchoring, mooring and towing, and also used for hauling, lifting and towing the heavy objects on the ship. The commonly used marine winches include anchor winch, anchor mooring winch, towing winch, mooring winch, capstan, etc. The main structure of the winch consists of drum, chain wheel, chain, wire rope, manual belt type brake, manual clutch, power system (motor, hydraulic pump station or diesel engine) and control system composition.

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      1. The material of construction winch and marine winch is basically the same, both of which are Q235B or Q345B. The construction winch is generally made of Q235B (the drum is made of Q345B steel plate), and the marine winch is generally made of Q345B.
      2. Different use occasions, construction winch is used on land; marine winch is used in port, wharf and ship or offshore operation platform;
      3. The structure of marine winch is different from that of construction winch. Manual clutch and manual band brake are the standards configurations for the marine winch, and many marine winches are also equipped with auxiliary drum (small drum). The standard configuration of construction winch is hydraulic block brake;
      4. Marine winch is generally sprayed with anti-corrosive paint (waterproof and rust proof);
      5. The welding requirements of marine winch are relatively high, and the welding must be complete, full and flat;
      6. Marine winch is equipped with marine motor (IP56), and engineering winch is generally equipped with common motor (IP44);
      7. The quality requirements of marine winch are relatively high, many customers need classification society certification, such as CCS, ABS, BV, RMRS etc;
      8. The construction winch is generally electric; the marine winch is more hydraulic.

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        Main Technical Requirements of Windlass

        1. Driven by an independent prime mover or motor. If the hydraulic pipeline of the hydraulic windlass is connected with other deck mechanical pipelines, the normal operation of the windlass shall not be affected. Its working load is determined according to the diameter of anchor chain (D, mm).
        2. When the average speed is not less than 9m / min and an anchor is pulled from 82.5m to 27.5m deep, the windlass shall be able to work continuously for 30min.
        3. The windlass shall be able to work continuously for 2min under the action of overload tension (speed not required). The overload tension shall not be less than 1.5 times of the working load.
        4. The chain wheel or drum of windlass shall be equipped with reliable brake. After the brake is tightened, it shall be able to bear 45% of the static tension of the breaking load of the anchor chain or steel cable, or the maximum static load on the anchor chain.
        5. The chain stopper shall be able to bear the test load equivalent to the anchor chain, and its stress shall not be greater than 90% of its material yield point.
        6. Average speed: refers to the speed of recovering two anchor chains when three chains enter the water and are freely suspended.
        7. The installation of windlass shall ensure that three eyes (chain barrel, chain stopper and chain wheel) form a line when the chain is led out.

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        According to the diameter of anchor chain, the windlass can be divided into several specifications, such as φ 12 – φ 120mm (162mm). The main technical parameters of windlass include: diameter of anchor chain, nominal speed of windlass, rated load, supporting load, several stages of speed change, electric system, etc. The installation of the windlass on the ship shall ensure that the wrap angle between the anchor chain and the sprocket is 117-120 °.

        Classifications and Features of Winches

        The winches are classified according to the driving mode, which can be divided into mechanical driving winches, electric driving winches, pneumatic winches and hydraulic winches, and different types of winches are used widely on different work occasions as required.

        Electric winch: the winch that uses the motor as the source power and drives the drum to rotate through various transmission mechanisms.

        Features of Electric Winch

        1. The specified speed motor driving method is adopted for small or low-end winch products, which can realize single speed (or two speed) and two-way rotation functions. The system is simple, but it can not start at low speed and smoothly change speed;

        2. Adopt AC frequency conversion speed regulation to realize stepless speed regulation from zero to maximum speed, which can provide 100% rated torque under low speed and locked rotor conditions, and the speed regulation is stable.

        3. The equipment is complex, and the technical level of maintenance personnel is high.

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        Hydraulic Winch uses an oil pump as the driving force and transmits power through a hydraulic motor or cylinder.

        Features of Hydraulic Winch

        1. Small volume, light weight, small inertia force, no big impact when suddenly overloaded or stopped;

        2. Two way CVT control from zero to maximum speed;

        3. It is easy to change the direction of rotation of the motor. It can change the rotation of the working mechanism and the linear reciprocating motion without changing the direction of rotation of the motor;

        4. The hydraulic pump and the hydraulic motor are connected by oil pipe, which is not strictly limited in the arrangement of work pieces;

        5. The effective torque is limited in two directions by the dry seal overflow valve or hydraulic compensator. The system allows long-term load support, and different torque can be limited in two directions, so it is easy to realize overload protection;

        6. Because the oil is used as the working medium, the relative moving surface of components can be self lubricated, with small wear and long service life;

        7. Large output range, good load low-speed control, good start-up with load;

        8. Easy to operate and control, high degree of automation.

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        Pneumatic Winch: using the compressed air provided by the air compressor as the driving force, the winch is driven by the pneumatic motor and other drives.

        Features of Pneumatic Winch

        1. Compressed air station is required;

        2. The working pressure of the pneumatic system is low, the external dimension of the pneumatic motor is large, and the total weight of the starting system is heavy;

        3. Sensitive to the external environment, where the ambient temperature is low, there may be moisture condensation in the pneumatic pipeline and components;

        4. It is noisy, so a noise silencer is needed.

        Mechanical driven winch: it is driven by diesel engine with chains, belts or gears, etc.

        Features of Mechanical Driven Winch

        1. The fixed geometric position relationship between driving parts determines the design layout of the system, and the layout changes little;

        2. Large size and total weight of the transmission system;

        3. The installation layout is complex, and the plane and precise component positioning often need to be finished;

        4. It is difficult to realize wide range stepless speed regulation;

        5. Under the condition of load, it is difficult to realize stable inversion;

        6. Through the use of hydraulic coupling, the maximum torque can be generated under locked rotor operation.

        Basic Information of Electric Winch

        The electric winch is composed of motor, coupling, brake, gearbox and drum, which are installed on the frame together. When the lifting height, loading and unloading capacity are large and the work is busy, the speed regulation performance is required to be good, especially the empty hook can be lowered rapidly. For materials installed in place or sensitive, they shall be able to reduce at the fretting speed.

        single drum electric winch

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        It is driven by electric motor, driven by elastic coupling, three-stage closed gear reducer, tooth embedded coupling, and electromagnetic braking. The product has the advantages of high versatility, compact structure, small volume, light weight, heavy lifting and convenient use and transfer. It is widely used in building, water conservancy engineering, forestry, mining, wharf and other materials lifting or flat towing, and can also be used as the supporting equipment of modern electronic control automatic operation line.

        JM series is gear reducer driven winch. It is mainly used for hoisting, pulling and unloading, pushing and dragging heavy objects. Such as the installation and dis-assembly of various large and medium-sized concrete, steel structure and mechanical equipment. It is applicable to civil construction and installation works of construction and installation companies, mining areas and factories.

        double drum electric winch

        It is mainly divided into JK (fast speed), JM(slow speed), JMM (slow speed friction winch), JT (speed regulation), JKL, 2jkl manual control fast and other series of winches, which are widely used in industries requiring lifting such as industry and mining, metallurgy, lifting, construction, chemical industry, road and bridge, water and electricity installation, etc.

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          Working Principle of Winch

          The motor drives the steel wire rope drum through the reducer, retracts and puts the steel wire rope, and changes the direction through different pulleys. The technological requirements are mainly drum speed, that is, the speed of wire rope movement and the safety and reliability of the braking system. The winch is a relatively simple lifting or traction machine.

          construction-winch
          construction winch

          The winch is a light and small lifting equipment that uses winding steel wire rope or chain to lift or pull heavy objects. The winch can lift vertically, horizontally or obliquely. The winch is divided into manual winch, electric winch and hydraulic winch.

          The winch can be used alone, and can also be used as a component of hoisting, road building, mine hoisting and other machinery. It is widely used because of its simple operation, large amount of rope winding and convenient displacement. Mainly used in building, water conservancy engineering, forestry, mining, wharf and other materials lift or level drag.

          marine-winch
          marine winch

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            Classifications of Anchor Chain

            Anchor chain, also known as anchor line or anchor chain cables, is the chain used to connect anchor and ship’s hull to transfer and buffer the external force suffered by the ship, and it also can generate friction.

            The anchor chain can be classified in the following ways:

            1. Classified by manufacturing methods, there are cast steel chain cable, flashing welding chain cable and forging chain cable;
            2. Classified by chain structure, there are stud-linkchain and stud-less chain;
            3. Classified by application, there are vessel anchor chain and marine mooring chain cable;
            4. Classified by steel grade, there are AM1, AM2 and AM3 for ship chain, and R3, R3S, R4, R4S and R5 for mooring chain cable. The anchor chain is divided into three grades in traditional sense, nowadays there are five more grades with the continual development, and they are R3,RQ3,R4,R4+,R5.

            The anchor line accessories include Kent shackle, connecting shackle, A type swivel shackle, B type swivel shackle, end shackle and swivel.

            Studless Anchor Chain
            Studless Anchor Chain
            Studlink Anchor Chain
            Studlink Anchor Chain

            Uses of Anchor Line

            The anchor line is used to fix and stabilize ship, which can be demonstrated as follows:

            1. Anchor hooking something at sea bottom is the basic requirement for the anchor chain to function. If the chain cable is not long enough, the anchor will not work. If the sea bottom is flat or the things the anchor hooks are not fixed or the hooking is not strong enough, there may be some risks, for example, if the sea is rough with strong waves, the anchor cannot hook the things and it will not function, which is call “anchor dragging”, and during anchorage, it’s dangerous for the ship if anchor dragging happens. During anchoring operations, in general the main engine of the ship stops to work, if the ship sets sail immediately, it needs time and it’s dangerous for the ship to drift forward and backward without power; therefore, there is the saying of anchorage or anchoring zone, in other words, the sea bottom is rough and it’s safe for anchoring.
            2. The anchor chain weight can be ignored for the ship, and the friction will not help much. Generally speaking, the anchor chain is straight when the ship is in the process of anchoring, and the friction effect can be ignored at this time. For some small fishing boats, they adopt thick rope as anchor line.
            3. Seen from the ship, the anchor chain is straight, however, a length of the chain is almost parallel to the seafloor (actually it is close to the sea bottom) under the water. The anchor provides holding power and then transfers the power to the ship through anchor chain to resist the influence of external load from current, wind and waves on positioning. There is the length of the chain close to the sea bottom because of force influence. If the anchor and the anchor line are straight under the water, the anchor will be easy to drag because of pulling.

            The anchor chain consists of many links connecting with each other, and it’s expressed with chain diameter (mm). There are studlink and studless chains. The chain cable can be manufactured with cast, forging and welding ways. The ship chain line comprises some shackles, and the length of each shackle is in the range of 25.0 – 27.5m, the shackles are connected with links or shackles. After the anchoring, the anchor chain is stored in bow chain locker. The specification of the chain cable is calculated and determined according to ship building standards.

            Aimix Group supplies and customizes different types of marine anchor winches according to anchor line with different diameters, and the range can be from ø12mm to ø128mm. You can get more information about our marine winch used for anchoring operations.

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